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Research design

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Hello! I’m Dr. MEL. Nice to meet you! I’m absolutely excited that we are going to start this beautiful learning journey together and I’m sure you will find it fruitful and fulfilling. Feel free to share your thoughts here!

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Discussion thread: General
Toby.wong
30 December 2019
Research design

I would like to know more about research design. Any suggestions?

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

Baseline A Treatment B Baseline A
O-O-O-O-O-X-X-X-X-X-O-O-O-O-O-O

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Gladys.Kwong
30 December 2019

Nice. Can you also elaborate in notation?

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

This design needs multiple observations of a single individual. The target behavior of a single individual is established over time and is referred to as a baseline behavior. The baseline behavior is assessed, the treatment provided and then the treatment is withdrawn.

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Gladys.Kwong
30 December 2019

Great.

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

I am happy to share with you! The last but not least is Single-Subject Designs. Let take A-B-A Single-Subject Design as an example.

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Gladys.Kwong
30 December 2019

Thanks a lot.

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

Sure. This involves random assignment of participants to 4 groups. It’s a special case of a 2X2 factorial design. Pre-tests and treatments are varied for the four groups. All groups receive a post-test.
Group A R------O------X------O
Group B R------O--------------O
Group C R --------------X-----O
Groupd D R---------------------O

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Gladys.Kwong
30 December 2019

I see. Can you elaborate more about it?

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

No. We still have Solomon Four-Group Design.

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Gladys.Kwong
30 December 2019

That’s all for different kinds of True Experimental Designs?

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

Yes you are right.
Group A R------X------O
Group B R--------------O

This is the case.

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Gladys.Kwong
30 December 2019

I heard about it and it’s popular. This design controls for any confounding effects of a pre-test. The participants are assigned to groups randomly. The treatment is only given to experimental group. We measure both groups in post-test.

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

You are welcome! The second one is Post-Test-Only Control-Group Design.

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Sunny Lee
30 December 2019

Thank you very much for your explanation.

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

Yes absolutely!

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Sunny Lee
30 December 2019

Let me try to illustrate by notations. Is it…
Group A R------O------X------O
Group B R------O---------------O

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

This design needs random assignment of participants to 2 groups. Both groups are administered both a pre-test and post-test but the treatment is for experimental Group A.

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Sunny Lee
30 December 2019

What does it mean?

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

The first one I want to talk about is Pre-Test-Post-Test Control-Group Design.

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Sunny Lee
30 December 2019

Thanks for your reply!

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

Yes, apart from pre-experimental and Quasi-experimental designs, there are True Experimental and Single-Subject Designs.

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Sunny Lee
30 December 2019

Are there any other types of research designs?

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

Sure. Please see below
Group A O--O--O—O--X--O--O--O—O
------------------------------------------------
Group B O--O--O--O--O--O--O--O--O

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Iris Man
30 December 2019

Can you express more clearly by using notations?

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

Its modification in which two groups of participants, not randomly assigned, are observed over time. A treatment is administered to only one of the groups (i.e., Group A).

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Iris Man
30 December 2019

What’s it?

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

Yes, the last but not least is Control-Group Interrupted Time-Series Design.

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Iris Man
30 December 2019

I see. Thank you so much! Any others?

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

Yes. It can be expressed as:
Group A O—O—O—O—X—O—O—O—O

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Iris Man
30 December 2019

I remember that we record measures for a single group both before and after a treatment.

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

Yes it is.

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Iris Man
30 December 2019

Is Single-Group Interrupted Time-Series Design also a kind of Quasi-Experimental Design?

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

Yes. You are right.

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EmilyChiu121
30 December 2019

Yes…Is it
Group A O------X------O
-----------------------------
Group B O---------------O

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

It’s a popular approach to quasi-experiments. Experimental group (A) and control group (B) are selected without random assignment. Both of them take a pre- and post-test and only the experimental group receives the treatment.

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EmilyChiu121
30 December 2019

Yes! I used it before.

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

First, Nonequivalent (Pre-Test and Post-Test) Control-Group Design.

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EmilyChiu121
30 December 2019

I learnt several years ago but I’m not quite familiar with them.

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

Shall we talk about Quasi-Experimental Designs?

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EmilyChiu121
30 December 2019

Yes please.

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

Yes actually I just mentioned some of them. If you are interested, I can write more here.

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EmilyChiu121
30 December 2019

The above designs are ‘pre-experimental designs’. Are there any kinds of research designs?

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

My pleasure.

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Toby.wong
30 December 2019

Great. Thank you very much for giving lots of examples!

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

The exception is that the nonequivalent comparison group received a different treatment.
Group A X1------------O
----------------------------
Group B X2------------O

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Toby.wong
30 December 2019

Could you explain more?

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

We use the same procedure as the Static Group Comparison I have just mentioned as above, with an exception.

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Toby.wong
30 December 2019

Oh, what is it?

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

Last but not least, Alternative Treatment Post-Test-Only With Nonequivalent Groups Design.

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Toby.wong
30 December 2019

Thank you very much…

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

It is used after implementing a treatment. Researchers choose a comparison group and provides a post-test to both the experimental and comparison group(s) after the treatment.
Group A X ------------O
----------------------------
Group B ---------------O

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Toby.wong
30 December 2019

What is it for?

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

Next, Static Group Comparison or Post-Test-Only With Nonequivalent Groups.

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Toby.wong
30 December 2019

Nice. Any others?

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

The next one is One-Group Pre-Test-Post-Test Design which includes a pre-test measure followed by a treatment and a post-test for a single group.
Group A 01 ------X------02

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Toby.wong
30 December 2019

Thank you very much!

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

Yes of course!

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Toby.wong
30 December 2019

May I know more about the other types?

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

First, One-Shot Case Study. This design involves an exposure of a group to a treatment followed by a measure.
Group A X ------------O

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Toby.wong
30 December 2019

Sure.

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

You are welcome. Now I am going to explain research designs in detail.

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Toby.wong
30 December 2019

I see. Thank you very much for your illustration in advance.

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

You will see that there is a separation of parallel rows by a horizontal line. It indicates that comparison groups are not equal or equated by random assignment. No horizontal line between the groups displays random assignment of individuals to treatment groups.

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Toby.wong
30 December 2019

Okay 

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

And random assignment is indicated with a symbol R.

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Toby.wong
30 December 2019

I see…

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

The left-to-right dimension refers to the temporal order of procedures in the experiment. It is indicated with an arrow sometimes.

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Toby.wong
30 December 2019

Yes. Yes…

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

X’s and O’s in a given row are applied to the same specific persons. X’s and O’s in the same column or placed vertically relative to each other, are simultaneous.

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Toby.wong
30 December 2019

Ok…

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

O is what we can observe or measure on an instrument.

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Toby.wong
30 December 2019

Yes…

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

X indicates an exposure of a group to an experimental variable or event and we are going to measure the effects.

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Toby.wong
30 December 2019

Sure, thanks a lot.

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Michael Lo
30 December 2019

Yes, but before I list some example, let me use the notations to illustrate the designs.

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