Promoting academic achievement, self-esteem, social integration
Volunteering, parenting, parent education
8 items in 5-point rating scale
Cheung, Chau-kiu, Ching-man Lam, and Steven Sek-yum Ngai. 2008. “Help from the Parent-Teacher Association to Parenting Efficacy: Beyond Social Status and Informal Social Capital.” Journal of Socio-Economics 37:1138-1152.